"(...) The following have been rarely reported : Nerve or vertebral disc damage — Caused by prolonged postures, sometimes involving the legsEye damage and blurred vision, including worsening of glaucoma — Caused by increased eye pressure with headstandsStroke or blood vessel blockage — Caused by decreased blood flow to the brain or other body parts from postures.
There is a case report of a woman who presented with pneumothorax (potentially dangerous air around the lung) caused by a yoga-breathing technique called Kapalabhati pranayama. There is another report of a teen-age girl who died of obstructed breathing associated with mouth-to-mouth yoga (in which one person breathes into another person's mouth using yoga breathing techniques).
However, a long-acting barbiturate (which can cause decreased breathing) may have been partially at fault. Chronic cheilitis (inflammation of the lips) and persistent reflux have been reported in yoga instructors with unclear relationship to this modality.
People with disc disease, fragile or atherosclerotic neck arteries, a risk of blood clots, extremely high or low blood pressure, glaucoma, retinal detachment, ear problems, severe osteoporosis or cervical spondylitis should avoid some yoga poses. Certain yoga breathing techniques should be avoided in people with heart or lung disease.
Some experts advise caution in people with a history of psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia), because there is a risk of worsening symptoms, although this has not been clearly shown in studies."
Baskaran M, Raman K, Ramani KK, Roy J, Vijaya L, Badrinath SS. (2006). Intraocular pressure changes and ocular biometry during Sirsasana (headstand posture) in yoga practitioners. Ophthalmology. 2006 Aug;113(8):1327-32. Epub Jun 27.[PubMed]
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Fong, K.Y., Cheung, R.T. Yu, Y.L. Lai, C.W. and Chang, C.M. (1993). Basilar artery occlusion following yoga exercise: A case report. Clin Exp Neurol (Australia), 30:104-109.*
Gallardo MJ, Aggarwal N, Cavanagh HD, Whitson JT. (2006). Progression of glaucoma associated with the Sirsasana (headstand) yoga posture. Adv Ther, Nov-Dec;23(6):921-5.* [PubMed]
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"Vertebral artery occlusion developed in a young adult shortly after he had performed neck manipulations during yoga movements. Yoga exercises are a rare cause of acute medullary or cerebellar infarction."
Ikemi, Y., Ishikawa, H. Goyeche, J. R. and Sasaki, Y. (1978).“Positive” and “negative” aspects of the “altered states of consciousness” induced by autogenic training, Zen and yoga. Psychother Psychosom (Switzerland), 30(3-4):170-178
Injuries from Yoga and contraindications. (2005). International Association of Yoga Therapist. 30 p. [Texte complet]
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Kashyap, AS, Anand, KP & Kashyap, S. (2007). Complications of yoga. Emergency Medicine Journal, 24(3): 231. * [PubMed]
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Lu, Jessica S. & Pierre, Joseph M. (2007). Psychotic Episode Associated With Bikram Yoga. Am J Psychiatry, 164 : 1761, November. [Texte complet]
Machander, A.R. (1982). Comments on the increase of intrathoracic pressure in the practice of pranayama. Jógová Cvicení, pp. 65-70. * [In Czechoslovakian.]
Margo, C. E., Rowda, J. and Barletta, J. (1992). Bilateral conjunctival varix thromboses associated with habitual headstanding. American Journal of Ophthalmology, Jun 15;113(6):726-7.* [PubMed]
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Moulinjeune (sans date, probablement dans les années 1960). Les véritables dangers du Yoga. Conférence polycopiée par la F.N.P.Y.
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“There is a strong interest in the correlation between yoga (especially meditation) and psychosis. Some reports have described : (1) appearance of psychotic symptoms for the first time after meditation, (2) precipitation of acute psychotic episodes in those with history of psychosis, after meditation…”
“Meditation has been gaining popularity as a psychotherapeutic intervention (Frith, Stevens, Johnstone & Crow, 1979). However adverse effects of meditation have also been reported, viz. depersonalization, altered reality testing, and the appearance of previously repressed, highly changed memories and conflicts (Glueck & Stroebel, 1976 ; Kennedy, 1976). Similar responses were reported in a single subject several weeks after initiation into Transcendental Meditation (French, Schmid & Ingalls, 1975). Another report described how acute psychotic episodes were precipitated by intensive meditation in patients with a history of schizophrenia (Lazarus, 1976). A subsequent study attempted to analyze the correlation between contemplation and psychosis (Chan-Ob & Boonyanaruthee, 1999). Observations were made in three patients who presented psychotic symptoms subsequent to practice of meditation. In two of them sleep loss following a “wrong doing” of meditation was found to be the main cause and drug withdrawal was the principal factor in the third case. Also, in the case of Qigong, a Chinese meditation, a series of psychological and physiological disturbances followed inappropriate training (Xu, 1994). Some patients experienced a range of physical and mental symptoms which came to be called “Qigong deviation syndrome” which disappeared after the exercise was stopped. In traditional yoga texts, it has been mentioned that “by a mistaken course of yoga the yogi brings upon himself all diseases” (Hatha Yoga Pradipika (2:16). Ayuktabhyasa yogena sarvaroga samudbhavaha. Vishnudevananda, 1999).”
Robin, Mel. (2002). Injuries incurred by improper yogasana practice. In Mel Robin, A Physiological Handbook for Teachers of Yogasana. Tucson, Ariz.: Fenestra Books, pp. 511-518.
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Shakti - kundalini yoga. John F Kennedy University. Fall 2006. Bibliographie d’un cours. [Texte complet]
Descamps, Marc-Alain. (2005). L’éveil de la kundalini. Éditions Alphée.
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"Most types of meditation are believed to be safe in healthy individuals. However, the safety of meditation is not well studied. People with underlying psychiatric disorders should speak with a mental health provider before beginning meditation because there have been rare reports of mania or worsening of other symptoms. Some publications warn that intensive meditation can cause anxiety, depression or confusion, although this is not well studied.
Meditation should be used with caution in patients with underlying psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, personality disorders, seizures, or psychotic conditions.
The use of meditation should not delay the time it takes to see a health care provider for diagnosis or treatment with more proven techniques or therapies. Meditation should not be used as the sole approach to illness."
Side effects. Site "Meditation research" http://www.researchingmeditation.org/
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Mangla, Divay. Meditation is not free from side-effects. Article available from Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, ICYER, email@example.com. *
Murphy, Michael, and Steven Donovan. (1997). Negative experiences. In Michael Murphy and Steven Donovan, The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Review of Contemporary Research with a Comprehensive Bibliography 1931-1996. 2d ed. Sausalito, Calif.: The Institute of Noetic Sciences, pp. 143-145 [Texte complet]
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TranceNet présente les résultats de diverses recherches.
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Qi Gong is generally believed to be to be safe in most people when practiced according to standard moderate principles and when learned under the guidance of a qualified teacher. Unguided exercises may worsen symptoms in some patients with psychiatric disorders. There is one report of an allergic skin reaction in Qi Gong trainees, although the exact cause is not clear. Qi Gong should not be used as the sole treatment for severe illnesses in place of more proven therapies. Use of Qi Gong should not delay consultation with a qualified health care provider for such conditions.
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Lesson 3.5 Meditation and Spiritual Practices
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"Reiki is not recommended as the sole treatment for potentially serious medical conditions, and its use should not delay the time it takes to consult with a health care provider or receive established therapies. Serious adverse effects have not been reported in association with Reiki. Some Reiki practitioners believe that Reiki should be used cautiously in individuals with psychiatric illnesses."