Various Errors in Sanskrit Pronunciation

Words migrate from one language to the other, and as they do, their pronunciation changes. In English-speaking countries, we do not pronounce pizza the way Italians do, or Mexico the way Mexicans do. The Yoga lexicon has been migrating to the United States for well more than 150 years, and American Theosophists played a major role in re-introducing yoga to India.

“With a culture and heritage as variegated and rich as India is, it is not surprising that the English language absorbed as many as five hundred words during this time, and continue to do so even today. The Oxford English Dictionary currently has 700 words of Indian origin.”Dialogues- University of Michigan

You say eether and I say eyether,
You say neether and I say nyther,
Eether, eyether, neether, nyther,
Let's call the whole thing off!
You like potato and I like potahto,
You like tomato and I like tomahto,
Potato, potahto, tomato, tomahto!
Let's call the whole thing off!
But oh! If we call the whole thing off,
Then we must part.
And oh! If we ever part,
Then that might break my heart!
So, if you like pajamas and I like pajahmas,
I'll wear pajamas and give up pajahmas.
For we know we need each other, 
So we better call the calling off off.
Let's call the whole thing off!

Let's Call The Whole Thing Off Lyrics - GERSHWIN, GEORGE / GERSHWIN, IRA, Louis Armstrong

Relaxed Sanskrit

I advocate a relaxed approach to Sanskrit, in which you play with the words, feel them in your body, and over a period of years get to know them and understand them. You will probably never pronounce the words in the exact Vedic way, because you have not been trained 12 hours a day since the age of 6, and your palate has not been shaped to the sounds, nor did you hear Sanskrit chanted constantly while you were in the womb, and for most of your life. So relax, already, and have fun.

“And, then, there is the knotty problem of pronunciation. Americans, after all, do not get the sound right. This is bound to be troubling. From the Vedic age to the present day, in mantras the sound is the thing. An apologist might respond, neither do Indians. The Vedic ideal notwithstanding, there is no single absolutely correct way to pronounce Sanskrit, as regional variations in pronunciation, not to mention the migration of mantras from India to Central Asia and East Asia, abundantly prove.”

- Harvey Alper, Understanding Mantras, p. 443

“If the efficacy of mantras depended on their correct pronunciation, then all mantras in Tibet would have lost their meaning and power, because they are not pronounced according to the rules of Sanskrit, but according to the phonetic laws of the Tibetan language (for instance not; OM MANI PADME HUM, but OM MANI PEME HUM).This means that the power and the effect of a mantra depend on the spiritual attitude, the knowledge and responsiveness of the individual. The sabha or sound of the mantra is not a physical one (though it may be accompanied by such a one) but a spiritual one. It cannot be heard by the years but only by the heart, and it cannot be uttered by the mouth but only by the mind.”

- Lama Govinda, Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism. London: Rider and Co. 1959.

Paris or Pah-REE!

When French people - that is, born in France - are in the United States, they say “
Paris” - because that is the English-language pronunciation of the city. In the same conversation, if they switch to speaking French to another French speaker, they pronounce, Pah-REE. The same goes for people from Mexico. They say Meh-HEE-KO if they are speaking Spanish, and Mexico if they are speaking English. Which is correct? It depends on culture. I have never seen a French or Mexican person put the hurt on someone for saying “Paris” or “Mexico.” It just feels rude.

And in New Orleans, people “mis-pronounce” the name of their own city - that is, if you think you are the Pronunciation Police. The way they say it there, to my ears, sounds like NOIRLANS. So who is correct?

"To say a French word in the middle of an English sentence exactly as it would be said by a Frenchman in a French sentence is a feat demanding an acrobatic mouth; the muscles have to be suddenly adjusted to a performance of a different nature, & after it as suddenly recalled to the normal state; it is a feat that should not be attempted; the greater its success as a tour de force, the greater its failure as a step in the conversational progress; for your collocutor, aware that he could not have done it himself, has his attention distracted whether he admires or is humiliated."

-H. W. Fowler, A Dictionary of Modern English Usage:

“Of the words that came into English, there are certain characteristics that are easily recognizable. The first of which that, most words did not have equivalents in English, such as yoga, swastika, khaki, sari, and sati. Some of the words were taken and given a different meaning, as nirvana, kedgeree, Jodhpur. However words were rarely substituted to English words, as it happened during Old English and Middle English periods, with Latin and French words. Rather the words that were borrowed which already had meanings were used to adorn a text or speech since it sounded different and fashionable. Ex: pariah, pundit, purdah.

The pronunciation too, took a different tone, in these Indian borrowings. The important modifications were mainly seen in the sounds of 't' and 'd'. In the North Indian languages 't' is mostly pronounced as 'th', as in thing; while the 'd' is pronounced as 'th' in this. When a word from this region came to English, the sound came with a hard 't' and 'd' as in dungaree (Hindi) and swastika (Sanskrit). The words that came from South Indian languages meanwhile took the exact opposite course, with 't' and 'd', being pronounced softly or not at all: as in cheroot (Tamil churuttu/shuruttu). This maybe because South Indian languages tend to stress the sounds 't' and 'd' more, which Europeans may have considered to be disagreeable to their ear.” -

Dialogues- University of Michigan


áti--sparśa [p= 13,1] [L=2854]
too marked contact (of the tongue and palate) in pronunciation.
(H3) m.
an-uccāra [p= 32,2] [L=6278]
non-pronunciation , skipping words (in reciting hymns). » uc-car.
(H1) m.
an-uccāraa [L=6278.1]
non-pronunciation , skipping words (in reciting hymns). » uc-car.
(H1) n.
anu-nāsika [p= 34,1] [L=6522]
nasal , uttered through the nose (as one of the five nasal consonants , or a vowel , or the three semivowels y , v , l , under certain circumstances ; in the case of vowels and semivowels , the mark is used to denote this nasalization)

anu-nāsika [L=6524]
a nasal twang
anu-nāsika [L=6525]
speaking through the nose (a fault in pronunciation).
(H1) mfn.
[L=6523]the nasal mark
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
abhi-ni-dhāna [p= 64,1] [L=11622]
placing upon Ka1tyS3r.
abhi-ni-dhāna [L=11623]
[ APra1t. and TPra1t. ] or n. [ RPra1t. ] " touching " or close contact (of letters in pronunciation , especially in the cases where initial a is suppressed after e and o).
(H2) n.
(H2B) m.

ambū-krita [p= 84,1] [L=14559]
(ambū used onomatopoetically to denote by trying to utter mb the effect caused by shutting the lips on pronouncing a vowel) , pronounced indistinctly (so that the words remain too much in the mouth)

ambu , water]) sputtered , accompanied with saliva Pat. La1t2y. (an- ,neg.)
ambū-krita [L=14561]
a peculiar indistinct pronunciation of the vowels RPra1t. Pat.
ambū-krita [L=14562]
roaring (of beasts) accompanied with emission of saliva Uttarar. Ma1lati1m.
(H1) mfn.
[L=14560]([in later writers derived fr.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
a-yathā-mātram [p= 84,3] [L=14734]
not according to measure or quantity (a defect in the pronunciation of vowels) RPra1t.
(H3) ind.

ardhaka [p= 92,3] [L=16322]
forming a half. Bhpr.
ardhaka [L=16323]
the half. Hcat.
ardhaka [L=16324]
N. of a wrong pronunciation of the vowels Pat.
ardhaka [L=16325]
water-snake L.
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) m.

kampa [p= 252,3] [L=43914]
trembling , tremor , trembling motion , shaking MBh. Sus3r. &c

cf. bhūmi-kampa , mahī-k° , &c )

svarita accent which may take place if the svarita syllable is followed by an udātta syllable) Nir. &c

of a man.
(H2) m.
[L=43915]earthquake (
[L=43916]tremulous or thrilling pronunciation (a modification of the
[L=43917]a kind of time (in mus.)
kampana [L=43923]
(ā)n. trembling , shaken , unsteady

kampana [L=43925]
a kind of weapon MBh. i , 2836 R.
kampana [L=43926]
a kind of fever Bhpr.
kampana [L=43927]
the cool or dewy season (from about the middle of January to that of March) L.
kampana [L=43928]
N. of a king MBh. ii , 117
kampana [L=43929]
of a country near kāśmīra Ra1jat.
kampana [L=43931]
trembling , quivering Sus3r.
kampana [L=43932]
an earthquake MBh. v , 7239
kampana [L=43933]
quivering or thrilling pronunciation (» kampa) Comm. on RPra1t.
kampana [L=43934]
the act of shaking , swinging Ka1tyS3r. Sus3r. i , 85 , 9 Tarkas. &c
(H2) mf
[L=43924]causing to tremble , shaking
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.

káraa--vinyaya [p= 254,1] [L=44257]
manner of pronunciation TPra1t.
(H3) m.
káraa--sthāna-bheda [L=44261]
difference of articulation or organ of pronunciation.
(H3) m.
karaā* dhikāra [p= 254,2] [L=44263]
a chapter on the subject of pronunciation.
(H3) m.
kala [p= 260,1] [L=45601]
(ā)n. (etym. doubtful) indistinct , dumb Br2A1rUp. ChUp.
260,2] [L=45602]
ifc. , pa , or aśru preceding) indistinct or inarticulate (on account of tears) MBh. R. &c

R. BhP. Vikr. &c


kala [L=45606]
(scil. svara) a low or soft and inarticulate tone (as humming , buzzing &c ) L.
kala [L=45607]
Shorea robusta L.
kala [L=45608]
(in poetry) time equal to four mātras or instants W.
kala [L=45609]
a class of manes MBh.
kala [L=45610]
semen virile L.
kala [L=45611]
Zizyphus Jujuba
kala [p= 1324,1] [L=326990]
N. of a poet, Subh.
(H1) mf
[p= (
[L=45603]low , soft (as a tone) , emitting a soft tone , melodious (as a voice or throat)
[L=45604]a kind of faulty pronunciation of vowels
[L=45605]weak , crude , undigested
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m. pl.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H2) m.
kveana [p= 334,1] [L=60647]
hissing Mn. iv , 64 Sch.

RPra1t. xiv , 6.
(H2) n.
[L=60648]hissing pronunciation (of sibilants)
grasta [p= 371,2] [L=68555]
swallowed , eaten Pan5cat.



Das3. iv Hit.

MBh. xiii , 7292 R. iv , 50 , 11

Ya1jn5. iii , 245 Pan5cat. &c

MBh. iii , 2667 R. &c

RPra1t. La1t2y. Pa1n2S3. ( RV. ) 35 Pat.

a- neg.) ChUp.
grasta [L=68564]
inarticulate pronunciation of the vowels Pat. Introd. on Va1rtt. 18.
(H2) mfn.
[L=68556]taken , seized
[L=68557]surrounded or absorbed
[L=68558]possessed (by a demon)
[L=68559]involved in
[L=68560]tormented , affected by
[L=68562]inarticulately pronounced , slurred
(H2B) n.
grāsa [L=68571]
ifc. swallowing Nr2isUp. ii , 5 , 10
grāsa [L=68572]
a mouthful , lump (of rice &c of the size of a peacock's egg) Mn. Ya1jn5. &c
grāsa [L=68573]
food , nourishment Gobh. S3a1n3khGr2. Pa1n2. 8-2 , 44 Va1rtt. 4 Mn. viii &c
grāsa [L=68574]
the quantity eclipsed , amount of obscuration Su1ryas.
grāsa [L=68575]
(in geom.) a piece cut out by the intersection of 2 circles W.
grāsa [L=68576]
the erosion , morsel bitten W.
grāsa [L=68577]
= grasti Bhartr2. ii , 22 Subh.
grāsa [L=68578]
the act of eclipsing VarBr2S. v
grāsa [L=68579]
an eclipse Su1ryas.
grāsa [L=68580]
the first contact with an eclipsed disk ib.
grāsa [L=68581]
slurring , inarticulate pronunciation of the gutturals RPra1t. xiv , 4.
grāsa [p= 374,1] [L=69078]
grāsa [p= 1326,3] [L=330640]
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H1) &c
(H2) (in
jihvā́--prathana [p= 422,1] [L=79511]
expansion or too great flattening of the tongue (defect in pronunciation) RPra1t. xiv , 7. ,
(H3) n.
tarvan [p= 440,2] [L=83483]
tad-van Pat. on Pa1n2. Introd. Va1rtt. 9.
(H1) wrong pronunciation for
daṣṭa [p= 473,1] [L=91127]
( √ daś) bitten , stung Mn. xi MBh. &c (said of a wrong pronunciation Pa1n2S3. [ RV. ] 35)
daṣṭa [L=91128]
a bite Sus3r. i , 13 , 6.
(H1) mfn.
(H1B) n.
druta [p= 502,1] [L=97849]
quick , speedy , swift MBh. R.


Ka1v. Pur.

druta [L=97853]
a scorpion L.
druta [L=97854]
a tree (cf. drua and druma) L.
druta [L=97855]
a partic. faulty pronunciation of vowels Pat.
(H2) mfn.
[L=97850]quickly or indistinctly spoken
[L=97851]flown , run away or asunder
[L=97852]dissolved , melted , fluid
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.
Westergaard Dhatupatha links: 22.3
Whitney Roots links: Df
dh [p= 519,2] [p= 519,1] [L=101815]
dharati , °te ( Dha1tup. xxii , 3 ; A1. Pot. dhareran A1pS3r. ), but more commonly in the same sense the Caus. form dhārayati , °te (perf. P. dādhā́ra , °dhártha [Impv. dadhartu AV.Paipp. ] ; A1. dadhré , 3. pl. °dhriré RV. &c ; aor. adhāram R. ; adhta,dhthās AV. ; ádīdharat RV. &c [dīdhar,didhtam,°ta RV. ; 3. pl. °rata S3Br. ] ; adārīt Gr. ; fut. dhariyati MBh. ; ° AV. ; dhartā BhP. ; inf. dhartum Ka1v. , °tavai Br. [dhartári » under °t] ; ind.p. dhtvā , -dhtya Br. ) to hold , bear (also bring forth) , carry , maintain , preserve , keep , possess , have , use , employ , practise , undergo RV. &c  ; 
(with or scil
ātmānam , jīvitam , prāān , deham , śarīram &c ) to preserve soul or body , continue living , survive MBh. Ka1v. &c (esp. fut. dhariyati ; cf. Pass. below)  ; 
to hold back , keep down , stop , restrain , suppress , resist
Br. MBh. Ka1v. &c  ; 
to place or fix in , bestow or confer on (
loc.) RV. AV. Br. &c  ; 
to destine for (
dat. ; A1. also to be destined for or belong to) RV.  ; 
to present to (
gen.) Ka1ran2d2.  ; 
to direct or turn (attention , mind ,
&c ) towards , fix or resolve upon (loc. or dat.) Up. Ya1jn5. MBh.  ; 
A1. to be ready or prepared for S3Br.  ; 
P. A1. to owe anything (acc.) to (dat. or gen.) MBh. (cf. Pa1n2. 1-4 , 35)  ; 
to prolong (in pronunciation)
AitBr. RPra1t.  ; 
to quote , cite
L.  ; 
garbham) to conceive , be pregnant (older °bham-bh) MBh. Ka1v. &c  ; 
daṇḍam) to inflict punishment on (loc.) MBh. R. BhP. (also damam)  ; 
keśān , or śmaśru) to let the hair or beard grow MBh.  ; 
raśmīn [ib.] or praharān [ S3ak. ]) to draw the reins tight  ; 
dharamam) to fulfil a duty R.  ; 
vratám) to observe or keep a vow RV. &c  ; 
dhāraām) to practise self-control Ya1jn5.  ; 
ipas) to perform penance BhP.  ; 
mūrdhnā or °dhni , śirasā or °si) to bear on the head , honour highly Ka1v.  ; 
(with or
scil. tulayā) to hold in a balance , weigh , measure MBh. Ka1v. &c  ; 
(with or
scil. manasā) to bear in mind , recollect , remember ib.  ; 
samaye) to hold to an agreement , cause to make a compact Pan5c. i , 125÷126 (B. dṛṣṭ for dhtvā): Pass. dhriyáte (ep. also °yati ; pf. dadhré &c = A1. ; aor. adhāri) to be borne &c  ; 
so be firm , keep steady
RV. &c  ; 
continue living , exist , remain
Br. MBh. Ka1v. &c (also dhāryate R. )  ; 
to begin , resolve upon , undertake (
dat. ; acc. or inf.) AV. S3Br. ChUp. : Caus. dhāráyati , °te » above: Desid. didhīrati (» °ā) , didhariate Pa1n2. 7-2 , 75  ; 
didhārayiati , to wish to keep up or preserve (ātmānam) Gobh. iii , 5 , 30 : Intens. dárdharti ( RV. ) anddādharti (3. pl. °dhrati TS. ; cf. Pa1n2. 7-4 , 65) to hold fast , bear firmly , fasten. [cf. Zd. dar ; Gk. θρόνος , θρ-νος , ; Lat. fre1-tus , fre1-num.]
(H1) cl.1 P. A1.
dh [L=101818]
held , borne , maintained , supported kept , possessed

RV. &c

scil. tulayā) MBh.

&c ) Mn. MBh. Ka1v.

kare , by the hand) Hit.


loc. or dat.) MBh. R.


Pra1t. (am ind. solemnly , slowly Pan5c. iii , 72÷73)

antare) deposited as surety , pledged ib. iv , 31÷32

comp.) L.
dh [L=101829]
N. of a son of the 13th manu Hariv. (v.l. bhtha)
dh [L=101830]
of a descendant of druhyu and son of dharma Pur. (cf. dhārteya)
dh [L=101831]
a partic. manner of fighting Hariv.
(H2) mfn.
[L=101819]used , practised , observed
[L=101820]measured , weighed (with or
[L=101821]worn (as clothes , shoes , beard ,
[L=101822]kept back , detained (
[L=101823]drawn tight (reins)
[L=101824]turned towards or fixed upon , ready or prepared for , resolved on (
[L=101825]continuing , existing , being
[L=101826]prolonged (in pronunciation)
[L=101828]quoted , cited by (
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.
dhmātá [p= 520,3] [L=102159]
blown , blown up or into RV. &c

dhmātá [L=102161]
a partic. wrong pronunciation of vowels Pat.
(H2) mfn.
[L=102160]inflamed , excited
(H2B) n.
naddhá [p= 526,2] [L=103399]
( √ nah) bound , tied , bound on or round , put on , fastened to (comp.) AV. &c

instr. or ifc.) MBh. Ka1v.

oṣṭhābhyām , by the lips , said of a faulty pronunciation) RPra1t.
naddhá [L=103402]
tie , band , fetter , knot , string , trace AV. &c
(H1) mfn.
[L=103400]joined , connected , covered , wound , inlaid , interwoven (with
[L=103401]obstructed or impeded (
(H1B) n.
ni-° mada [p= 550,3] [L=108924]
pronunciation which is distinct but slow (one of the 7 vāca sthānāni , or degrees of pronunciation) TPra1t.
(H3) m.
nir-° asta [p= 553,1] [L=109301]
( R. also °asita) cast out or off , expelled , banished , rejected , removed , refuted , destroyed S3Br. Mn. MBh. &c


553,2] [p= 553,1] [L=109301.3]
a-n° ChUp. ii , 22 , 3)
nir-° asta [L=109301.4]
dropping or leaving out (considered a fault in pronunciation) Pat.
(H3) mfn.
[L=109301.1]shot off (as an arrow)
[L=109301.2]spit out , vomited
[p= pronounced hurriedly or dropped in pronouncing (
(H3B) n.
ana [p= 629,2] [L=124652]
pressing , afflicting , molesting , paining (cf. caku-p°)
ana [L=124653]
the act of pressing or squeezing R. Katha1s. Gi1t.
ana [L=124654]
an instrument for pressing , press (= ana-dravya) Sus3r.
ana [L=124655]
the act of oppressing or suppressing , Paining , harassing , afflicting R. Ka1m. Ra1jat.
ana [L=124656]
devastation , laying a country waste W.
ana [L=124657]
misfortune , calamity Mn. ix , 299
ana [L=124658]
obscuration , eclipse (of a planet cf. graha-p° ) Sus3r.
ana [L=124659]
suppression (of sounds , a fault in pronunciation) RPra1t.
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
prati-hāra [p= 673,1] [L=133529]
striking against , touch , contact (esp. of the tongue with the teeth in the pronunciation of the dentals) RPra1t.

a-pr°) Ta1n2d2Br.

of partic. syllables in the sāman hymns (with which the pratihart begins to join in singing , generally at the beginning of the last pada of a stanza ; also pratī-h° AV. S3a1n3khBr. ) Br. S3rS. &c

of a partic. magical formula spoken over weapons R. (v.l. °ra-tara)

pratī-h° L. ; cf. comp. below)

Hariv. Ka1v. Pur. &c (also pratī-h° ; du. two door-keeper i.e. two statues at the entrance of a temple VarBr2S. ; f(ī). a female door-keeper , portress , Priyad. )


(H2) m.
[L=133530]shutting , closing , stopping (
[L=133533](that which keeps back) , a door , gate (also
[L=133534]a door-keeper , porter
[L=133535]a juggler
[L=133536]juggling , trick , disguise
prathamá--sthāna [p= 679,1] [L=134580]
the first or lowest scale (in pronunciation , low but audible) Ka1tyS3r.
(H3) n.
prayo-gá 1 [p= 688,1] [L=136219]
( Padap. pra-yóga) (for 2. » under. pra-yuj) coming to a meal RV. x , 7 , 5 ( Sa1y. = pra-yoktavya)
prayo-gá 1 [L=136219.1]
N. of a ṛṣi TS.
prayo-gá 1 [L=136219.2]
(with bhārgava) author of RV. viii , 91 Anukr.
prayoga 2 [p= 688,2] [L=136310]
(for 1. » under 2. práyas , col.1) joining together , connection Var.

Vpra1t. Pa1n2. (loc. often = in the case of Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 1-4 , 25 ; 26 &c )

MBh. R. &c


S3Br. S3rS.

Ma1lav. Ra1jat.

esp. of drugs or magic ; cf. IW. 402 , 1) , use Gr2S3rS. MBh. &c (ena , āt and °ga-tas ifc. = by means of)

opp. to , " theory ") Ma1lav.

ais , by use of means) MBh. Sus3r.

Siddh. Vop.

Mr2icch. Ka1lid. (°ga-to-dś , to see actually represented » on the stage Ratna7v. )

Ka1lid. Prab.

S3rS. RPra1t. Pa1n2. Sch.
688,3] [L=136323]

Mn. MBh.






cf. pra-yāga) L.
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2) m.
[L=136311]position , addition (of a word)
[L=136312]hurling , casting (of missiles)
[L=136313]offering , presenting
[L=136314]undertaking , beginning , commencement
[L=136315]a design , contrivance , device , plan
[L=136316]application , employment (
[L=136317]practice , experiment (
[L=136318]a means (only
[L=136319](in gram.) an applicable or usual form
[L=136320]exhibition (of a dance) , representation (of a drama)
[L=136321]a piece to be represented
[L=136322]utterance , pronunciation , recitation , delivery
[p= a formula to be recited , sacred text
[L=136324]lending at interest or on usury , investment
[L=136325]principal , loan bearing interest
[L=136326]an example
[L=136327]cause , motive , affair , object
[L=136328]consequence , result
[L=136329]ceremonial form , course of proceeding
[L=136330]a horse (
prāa 1 [p= 701,3] [L=138763]
(for 2. » [p= 705,1].) filled , full L.
prā* á 2 [p= 705,1] [L=139500]
(ifc. f(ā). ; for 1. » under √ prā , p.701) the breath of life , breath , respiration spirit vitality

life RV. &c (prā*ān with √ muc or √ or pari-tyaj , " to resign or quit life " ; with √ rak , " to save life " ; with ni-han , " to destroy life " ; tvam me prā*a , " thou art to me as dear as life " ; often ifc. ; cf. pati- , *na-pr°)

prā*a , apā*na and vyāna AitBr. TUp. Sus3r. ; usually 5 , viz. the preceding with sam-āna and , ud-āna S3Br. MBh. Sus3r. &c cf. MWB. 242 ; or with the other vital organs 6 S3Br. ; or 7 AV. Br. Mun2d2Up. ; or 9 AV. TS. Br. ; or 10 S3Br. ; pl. the 5 organs of vitality or sensation , viz. prā*a , vāc , cakus , śrotra , manas , collectively ChUp. ii , 7 , i ; or = nose , mouth , eyes and ears GopBr. S3rS. Mn. iv , 143)
705,2] [L=139503]
AV. S3Br.

MBh. R. &c (sarvaprā*ena or -prā*ai , " with all one's strength " or " all one's heart " ; cf. yathā-prā*am)

÷6 vināikā) Var. A1ryabh. VP.

of a kalpa (the 6th day in the light half of brahmā's month) Pur.

khya) the spirit (= purua) Tattvas.

vedānta) the spirit identified with the totality of dreaming spirits Veda7ntas. RTL. 35 (cf. prāā*tman)



N. of the letter y Up.

sāman Ta1n2d2Br. (vasiṣṭhasya prā*ā**nau A1rshBr. )

brahmā L.

viṣṇu RTL. 106

vasu BhP.

vasu dhara Hariv.

marut Ya1jn5. Sch.

dhāt Pur.

vidhāt BhP.

ṛṣi in the 2nd manv-antara Hariv.
prā* a [p= 1330,3] [L=337000]
(H2) mfn.
(H2) m.
[L=139502]a vital organ vital air (3 in number , viz.
[p= air inhaled , wind
[L=139504]breath (as a sign of strength), vigour , energy , power
[L=139505]a breath (as a measure of time , or the time requisite for the pronunciation of 10 long syllables = 1
[L=139509]poetical inspiration
[L=139512]of a
[L=139515]of a
[L=139516]of a son of the
[L=139517]of a
[L=139518]of a son of
[L=139519]of a son of
[L=139520]of a
(H2) (in
prāti--śākhya [p= 706,3] [L=139907]
(fr. -śākham) a treatise on the peculiar euphonic combination and pronunciation of letters which prevails in different śākhās of the vedas (there are 4 prātiśākhya one for the śākala-śākhā of the RV. ; two for particular śākhās of the black and white yajur-vedas , and one for a śākhā of the AV. ; cf. IW. 149 , 150)
(H3) n.
barbara--tā [p= 722,1] [L=142944]
a partic. stammering pronunciation of the letter r RPra1t.
(H3) f.
bahi--śri [p= 726,3] [L=144094]
°híh-) ind. said of a partic. pronunciation S3Br.
(H3) (
bha° kitá [p= 742,3] [L=147558]
eaten or drunk , chewed , masticated , devoured , enjoyed , partaken of S3Br. &c

partic. bad pronunciation of words) L.
bha° kitá [L=147560]
the being eaten by (instr.) R.
(H3) mfn.
[L=147559]eaten (said of a
(H3B) n.
mukha--sukha [p= 820,1] [L=164989]
causing ease of pronunciation Pa1n2. 3-3 , 57 Sch.
(H3) n.
Westergaard Dhatupatha links: 28.23
Whitney Roots links: riP
riph [p= 880,3] [L=178088]
( Dha1tup. xxviii , 23) riphati (p. -rephat S3a1n3khBr. ; pf. rirepha &c Gr. ; ind.p. rephitvā Pa1n2. 1-2 , 23 Sch.) , to snarl AV.  ; 
L. ) to speak or boast (kathane or katthane)  ; 
to blame
to fight
to give
to hurt , kill (
cf.rimph): Pass. riphyate , to be murmured or spoken in a guttural or burring manner (like the letter r)  ; 
to have or take the pronunciation of the letter
r A1s3vS3r. (cf. repha).
(H1) cl.6 P.
romaśá [p= 890,1] [L=179974]
(ā́)n. (cf. lomaśa) having thick hair or wool or bristles , hairy , shaggy RV. &c

romaśá [L=179976]
a sheep , ram L.
romaśá [L=179977]
a hog , boar L.
romaśá [L=179978]
N. of two plants (= kambhī and piṇḍā*lu) L.
romaśá [L=179979]
= dullala (?) L.
romaśá [L=179980]
N. of a ṛṣi BhP.
romaśá [L=179981]
of an astronomer (cf. -siddhā*nta)
romaśá [L=179983]
another plant (= dagdhā) L.
romaśá [L=179984]
N. of the reputed authoress of RV. i , 126 , 7 RAnukr.
romaśá [L=179986]
the pudenda RV. x , 86 , 16.
(H2) mf
[L=179975]applied to a faulty pronunciation of vowels
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.
laghú [p= 893,3] [L=180778]
( , or u)n. (a later form of raghu , q.v.) light , quick , swift , active , prompt , nimble Mn. MBh. &c (also said of a partic. mode of flying peculiar to birds Pan5cat. ; applied to the nakatras hasta , aśvinī , and puya VarBr2S. )

AV. &c


Hariv. Ka1lid.



MBh. iii , 8449


opp. to guru)

va , as opp. to madhyama and guru)

S3Br. &c

Mn. MBh. &c

» -bhrāt)

» -vāsas)

Katha1s. BhP.

MBh. Ka1lid.
laghú [L=180794]
bdellium L.
laghu [L=180795]
u) f. Trigonella Corniculata L.
laghú [L=180797]
a light carriage L.
laghú [L=180798]
a slender or delicate woman W.
laghú [L=180799]
a partic. measure of time (= 15 ṣṭs= 1÷15 ikā) L.
laghú [p= 894,1] [L=180800]
a partic. species of agallochum L.
laghú [L=180801]
the root of Andropogon Muricatus L.
laghú [L=180802]
lightly , quickly , easily &c S3ak. (laghu-man , to think lightly of. S3ak. ) ([cf. Gk. -λαχύς ; Lat. le8vis for le1vis , lenhuis ; Lith. lengvu8s , le8ngvas ; Angl.Sax. lungre , " quickly " ; Eng. lungs , " lights. "])
(H1) mf
[L=180779]light , easy , not heavy or difficult
[L=180780]light in the stomach , easily digested
[L=180781]easy in mind , light-hearted
[L=180782]causing easiness or relief
[L=180783]well , in good health
[L=180784]unimpeded , without attendance or a retinue
[L=180785]short (in time , as a suppression of the breath)
[L=180786](in prosody) short or light (as a vowel or syllable ,
[L=180787](in gram.) easily pronounced or articulated (said of the pronunciation of
[L=180788]small , minute , slight , little , insignificant
[L=180789]weak , feeble , wretched , humble , mean , low (said of persons)
[L=180790]young , younger (
[L=180791]clean , pure (
[L=180792]soft , gentle (as sound)
[L=180793]pleasing , agreeable , handsome , beautiful
(H1B) m.
(H1B) (
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1C) ind.
lomaśya [p= 908,2] [L=183726]
hairiness , woolliness MW.
lomaśya [L=183727]
" roughness " , N. of a partic. pronunciation of the sibilants RPra1t.
(H2) n.
(H2B) n.
vacaná [p= 912,3] [L=184711]
speaking , a speaker , eloquent RV.

ifc.) mentioning , indicating , expressing , meaning Pa1n2. Ka1tyS3r. Sarvad. (-tā f. , -tva n.)

Rpra1t. (-tva n.)
vacaná [L=184714]
(ifc. f(ā).) the act of speaking , utterance , Sa1m2khyak.
vacaná [L=184715]
pronunciation Pa1n2. Pra1t.
vacaná [L=184716]
statement , declaration , express mention AitBr. S3rS. Pa1n2. &c
vacaná [L=184717]
speech , sentence , word Mn. MBh. &c
vacaná [L=184718]
(in gram.) the injunction of a teacher , rule Ka1s3.
vacaná [L=184719]
advice , instruction , direction , order , command MBh. Ka1v. &c (°na-k or °ne-sthā with gen. = to do the bidding of any one , follow a person's advice , obey ; °nena or °nāt , with gen. = in the name of)
vacaná [L=184720]
sound , voice , APra1t. Megh. Hit.
vacaná [L=184721]
(in gram.) number Pa1n2. Vop. (cf. eka- , dvi- , bahu-v°)
vacaná [L=184722]
rumour L.
vacaná [L=184723]
dry ginger L.
(H2) mfn.
[L=184713]being pronounced ,
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) n.
vára--pāta [p= 924,3] [L=187361]
the dropping or omission of a letter in pronunciation MW.
(H3) m.
vākya--tva [p= 936,2] [L=189909]
the being a word or speech Sa1y.



ifc.) pronunciation Sus3r.
(H3) n.
[L=189910]the consisting of words
[L=189911]the being a sentence or period
vi-° kampita [p= 953,3] [L=193846]
trembling , shaking , tremulous , agitated , unsteady R2itus.
vi-° kampita [L=193847]
a kind of sinking of the tone of the voice APra1t.
vi-° kampita [L=193848]
a partic. faulty pronunciation of the vowels Pat.
(H3) mfn.
(H3B) n.
(H3B) n.
vi-kīra [p= 955,1] [L=194100]
scattered , thrown about , dispersed &c

Kum. (cf. comp.)

comp.) MBh.

vi-kīra [L=194104]
a partic. fault in the pronunciation of vowels Pat.
(H2) mfn.
[L=194101]dishevelled (as hair)
[L=194102]filled with , full of (
[L=194103]celebrated , famous
(H2B) n.
vi-kliṣṭa [p= 956,1] [L=194326]
( √ kliś) hurt , harassed , destroyed R.
vi-kliṣṭa [p= 956,2] [L=194327]
a partic. fault in pronunciation RPra1t. (prob. = next) .
(H1) mfn.
(H1B) n.
vi-kleśa [L=194328]
" indistinctness " , incorrect pronunciation of the dentals ib.
(H2) m.
vi- √ dhā [p= 967,3] [p= 967,2] [L=196486]
-dadhāti , -dhatte , to distribute , apportion , grant , bestow RV. &c &c (with kāmam , to fulfil a wish)  ; 
to furnish , supply , procure (with
ātmana , " for one's self ") MBh.  ; 
to spread , diffuse
RV. AV.  ; 
to put in order , arrange , dispose , prepare , make ready
RV. AV. Br. Up.  ; 
to divide , parcel out
S3ukas.  ; 
to ordain , direct , enjoin , settle , appoint
Gr2S3rS. Mn. MBh. &c  ; 
to form , create , build , establish , found
S3vetUp. MBh. &c  ; 
to perform , effect , produce , cause , occasion , make , do
Mn. MBh. &c (like √ k to be translated variously in connection with various nouns e.g. with sihatvam , to change into a lion ; with saciva-tām , to assume the office of a minister ; with veam , to put on a garment ; with vttim , to secure a maintenance ; with upā*yam , to devise a means ; with mantram , to hold a consultation ; with rājyam , to carry on government , rule ; with sadhim , to conclude peace ; with kalaham , to pick up a quarrel ; with vairam , to declare war ; with lajjām , to display bashfulness ; with kolāhalam , to raise a clamour ; with cumbana , to give a kiss)  ; 
to make , render (with two
acc.) Ka1v. Katha1s. &c  ; 
to contrive or manage that (
yathā) MBh. R.  ; 
to put or lay on or in , direct towards (
loc.) MBh. Ka1v. &c (with hdaye , to take to heart ; with agrata , or adha , to place before or below)  ; 
to send out , despatch (spies)
Mn. vii , 184  ; 
to take trouble with (
dat.) Kir. i , 3  ; 
to treat , deal with (
acc.) R. ii , 38 , 17 : Pass. -dhīyate , to be distributed &c  ; 
to be allotted or intended for (
gen.) Mn. ix , 119  ; 
to be accounted , pass for (
nom.) ib. iii , 118 : Caus. -dhāpayati , to cause to put , cause to be laid R.  ; 
cause to put in order or arrange or fix
MW. : Desid. -dhitsati , °te , to wish to distribute or bestow BhP.  ; 
to wish to decide or determine or fix or establish
S3am2k.  ; 
to wish to find out or devise (a means)
BhP.  ; 
to wish to procure or acquire
MBh.  ; 
to wish to perform or accomplish anything , intend , purpose
MBh. Hariv. BhP.  ; 
to wish to make or render (two
acc.) BhP.
vi-dhā́ [L=196488]
division , part , portion S3Br. S3ulbas. (often ifc. = " fold " ; cf. eka- , bahu-vidha &c ; also adv. in tri- and dvi-vidhā q.v.)

TS. &c (yayā kayā-cid vidhayā , in whatsoever way , anyhow ; often ifc. ; cf. asmad- eva- , nānā-vidha &c )


= ddhi) L.



vedhana L. (cf. 1. vidha).
(H1) P. A1.
(H2) f.
[L=196489]form , manner , kind , sort
[L=196491]increase (
[L=196492]wages , hire
vi-° bhajya---pāha [p= 977,2] [L=198212.1]
the distinct pronunciation (of every sound) Pin3g. Sch.
(H4) m.
ví--rāga 1 [p= 952,1] [L=193443]
(ā)n. passionless , without feeling , dispassionate , indifferent (sarvatas , " to everything ") R. BhP.
vi-rāga 2 [p= 982,1] [L=199109]
(for 1. » [p= 952,1]) change or loss of colour Naish.

Pa1n2. 6-4 , 91

loc. abl. , or comp.) Ka1v. Ra1jat. BhP.

982,2] [L=199113]

partic. high number Buddh.
(H3) mf
(H2) m.
[L=199110]excitement , irritation
[L=199111]aversion , dislike or indifference to (
[L=199112]indifference to external things or worldly objects
[p= the faulty suppression of a sound in pronunciation ,
vi-hāra [p= 1003,3] [L=203233]
(once in BhP. n.) distribution , transposition (of words) AitBr. La1t2y.


opp. to sa-hāra q.v.) RPra1t.

MBh. Ka1v. &c

comp. ; ifc. also = taking delight in) Ya1jn5. MBh. R. &c

MBh. Ka1v. &c

jainas) a monastery or temple (originally a hall where the monks met or walked about ; afterwards these halls were used as temples) Lalit. Mr2icch. Katha1s. &c (cf. MWB. 68 ; 81 &c )


of the country of magadha (called Bihar or Behar from the number of Buddhist monasteries » MWB. 68) Cat.


partic. bird (= bindurekaka) L.

vaijayanta L.
(H2) m.
[L=203234]arrangement or disposition (of the 3 sacred fires ; also applied to the fires themselves or the space between them) ,
[L=203235]too great expansion of the organs of speech (consisting in too great lengthening or drawling in pronunciation ,
[L=203236]walking for pleasure or amusement , wandering , roaming
[L=203237]sport , play , pastime , diversion , enjoyment , pleasure (" in " or " with "
[L=203238]a place of recreation , pleasure-ground
[L=203239](with Buddhists or
[L=203240]consecration for a sacrifice
[L=203242]the shoulder
vtti [p= 1010,1] [L=204501]
rolling , rolling down (of tears) S3ak. iv , 5 ; 14

esp.) moral conduct , kind or respectful behaviour or treatment (also v.l. for vtta) Gr2S3rS. Mn. MBh. &c


ib. Ka1v.


loc. or comp.) La1t2y. Hariv. Ka1v. &c

ifc. " employed about " , " engaged in " , " practising ") MBh. Ka1v. &c

ifc. ; cf. uñcha-v° ; vtti-k or √ kp [Caus.] with instr. , " to live on or by " ; with gen. , " to get or procure a maintenance for " ; only certain means of subsistence are allowed to a Brahman » Mn. iv , 4-6) S3rS. Mn. MBh. &c

Pan5cav. ??

MaitrUp. Kap. Veda7ntas. &c


partic. sense (loc.) , its function or force Pa1n2. Sa1h. Sch. on Ka1tyS3r. &c

vilambitā , madhyamā , and drutā q.v.) Pra1t.

e.g. any word formed with kt or taddhita affixes , any compound and even duals and plurals which are regarded as dvadva compounds , of which only one member is left , and all derivative verbs such as desideratives &c )

esp. dram. style , said to be of four kinds , viz. 1. kaiśikī , 2. bhāratī 3. sātvatī , 4. ārabhaī , qq.vv. ; the first three are described as suited to the śṛṅgāra , vīra , and raudra rasas respectively , the last as common to all) Bhar. Das3ar. &c

rhet.) alliteration , frequent repetition of the same consonant (five kinds enumerated , scil. madhurā , prau* , puruā , lalitā , and bhadrā) Das3ar. , Introd.

v.l. for vtta q.v.)

esp. on a sūtra)

of the wife of a rudra BhP.
(H2) f.
[L=204502]mode of life or conduct , course of action , behaviour , (
[L=204503]general usage , common practice , rule
[L=204504]mode of being , nature , kind , character , disposition
[L=204505]state , condition
[L=204506]being , existing , occurring or appearing in (
[L=204507]practice , business , devotion or addiction to , occupation with (often
[L=204508]profession , maintenance , subsistence , livelihood (often
[L=204509]wages , hire ,
[L=204510]working , activity , function
[L=204511]mood (of the mind)
[L=204512]the use or occurrence of a word in a
[L=204513]mode or measure of pronunciation and recitation (said to be threefold , viz.
[L=204514](in gram.) a complex formation which requires explanation or separation into its parts (as distinguished from a simple or uncompounded form
[L=204515]style of composition (
[L=204517]final rhythm of a verse (= or
[L=204518]a commentary , comment , gloss , explanation (
vedā* ga [p= 1016,2] [L=205859]
vedā* ga [p= 1016,3] [L=205937]
" a limb (for preserving the body) of the veda " , N. of certain works or classes of works regarded as auxiliary to and even in some sense as part of the veda , (six are usually enumerated [and mostly written in the sūtra or aphoristic style] ; 1. śikā , " the science of proper articulation and pronunciation " , comprising the knowledge of letters , accents , quantity , the use of the organs of pronunciation , and phonetics generally , but especially the laws of euphony peculiar to the veda [many short treatises and a chapter of the taittirīya-ārayaka are regarded as the representatives of this subject ; but other works on Vedic phonetics may be included under it » prātiśākhya]: 2. chandas , " metre " [represented by a treatise ascribed to pigala-nāga , which , however , treats of Prakrit as well as Sanskrit metres , and includes only a few of the leading Vedic metres]: 3. vyākaraa , " linguistic analysis or grammar " [represented by ini's celebrated sūtras]: 4. nirukta , " explanation of difficult Vedic words " [cf. yāska]: 5. jyotia , " astronomy " , or rather the Vedic calendar [represented by a small tract , the object of which is to fix the most auspicious days for sacrifices]: 6. kalpa , " ceremonial " , represented by a large number of sūtra works [cf. sūtra]: the first and second of these vedā*gas are said to be intended to secure the correct reading or recitation of the veda , the third and fourth the understanding of it , and the fifth and sixth its proper employment at sacrifices: the vedā*gas are alluded to by manu , who calls them , in iii , 184 , pravacanas , " expositions " , a term which is said to be also applied to the brāhmaas) IW. 145 &c
(H3) »
(H2) n.
vy-āsa [p= 1035,2] [L=209338]
severing , separation , division Sarvad.


instr. ; abl. and -tas ind. in detail , at length , fully) MBh. Sus3r. BhP.

S3ulbas. VarBr2S.

N. of the pada-pāha or " disjoined text " Apra1t. ??

N. of a celebrated mythical sage and author (often called veda-vyāsa and regarded as the original compiler and arranger of the vedas , vedā*nta-sūtras &c ; he was the son of the sage parāśara and satyavatī , and half-brother of vicitra-vīrya and bhīma ; he was also called vādarāyaa or bādarāyaa , and kṛṣṇa from his dark complexion , and dvaipāyana because he was brought forth by satyavatī on a dvīpa or island in the Jumna ; when grown up he retired to the wilderness to lead the life of a hermit , but at his mother's request returned to become the husband of vicitra-vīrya's two childless widows , by whom he was the father of the blind dhta-rāṣṭra and of ṇḍu ; he was also the father of vidura [q.v.] by a slave girl , and of śuka , the supposed narrator of the bhāgavata-purāa , he was also the supposed compiler of the mahā-bhārata , the purāas , and other portions of Hindu sacred literature ; but the name vyāsa seems to have been given to any great typical compiler or author) MBh. Hariv. Pur. cf. IW. 371 n. 2 ; 373 &c

purāas &c in public (= haka-brāhmaa) MW.
vy-āsa [L=209345]
a bow weighing 100 palas L.
vy-āsa [p= 1039,2] [L=210095]
» [p= 1035,2].
(H2) m.
[L=209339]a kind of drawl (as a fault in pronunciation) ,
[L=209340]extension , diffusion , prolixity , detailed account (
[L=209341]width , breadth , the diameter of a circle
[L=209342]" distributing , disjoining " ,
[L=209343]" arranger , compiler " ,
[L=209344]a Brahman who recites or expounds the
(H2B) n.
(H1) &c
śikā [p= 1070,1] [L=216519]
» below.
śikā [L=216527]
desire of being able to effect anything , wish to accomplish Kir. xv , 37

loc. or comp. ; śikayā or °kābhis , " skilfully , artistically , correctly ") MBh. Ka1v. &c

adhicitta-śikā , training in the higher thought ; adhiśīla-ś° , training in the higher morality ; adhiprajñā-ś° , training in the higher learning Dharmas. 140) , instruction , lesson , precept S3a1n3khBr. TUp. &c

Nya1yam. Sch.

vedā*gas q.v.) Pra1t. Mun2d2Up. &c


» śikā-nará)

Bignonia Indica L.
(H2B) f.
(H2) f.
[L=216528]learning study knowledge , art , skill in (
[L=216529]teaching , training (held by Buddhists to be of three kinds , viz.
[L=216530]chastisement , punishment
[L=216531]the science which teaches proper articulation and pronunciation of Vedic texts (one of the six
[L=216532]modesty , humility , diffidence
[L=216533](?) helping , bestowing , imparting (
[L=216534]the plant
śūna [p= 1085,1] [L=220060]
( Pa1n2. 7-2 , 14) swelled , swollen (esp. " morbidly ") , increased , grown Sus3r.
śūna [L=220061]
N. of a man MBh.
śū́na [L=220062]
emptiness (orig. " swollen state " , " hollowness " cf. śūnya below) , lack , want , absence RV.
śūna [L=220063]
a partic. incorrect pronunciation (esp. of vowels) RPra1t.
śūna [p= 1086,1] [L=220258]
[p= 1085,1].
śūna [p= 1106,2] [L=224482]
» [p= 1085,1].
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) m.
(H2B) n.
(H2B) m.
(H1) »
(H3) &c
śvāsa [p= 1106,1] [L=224401]
hissing , snorting , panting R. Katha1s. BhP.

= prā*a , asu) MBh. Ka1v. &c

RPra1t. , Introd.


S3ak. Sa1h.

kudra , tamaka , chinna , mahat , and ūrdhva) Sus3r.
(H2) m.
[L=224402]respiration , breath (also as a measure of time
[L=224403]breathing or aspiration (in the pronunciation of consonants)
[L=224405]sighing , a sigh
[L=224406]affection of the breath , hard breathing , asthma (of which there are five kinds , viz.
sa-vāra [p= 1115,1] [L=226157]
raa &c » [p= 1116,1].
sa-vāra [p= 1116,1] [L=226338]
(ifc. f(ā).) covering , concealing , closing up MW.

opp. to the vi-vāra q.v. , and regarded as one of the bāhya-prayatnas) Pa1n2. 1-1 , 9 Sch.

Mr2icch. vii , (v.l.) 6÷7
(H1) °
(H2) m.
[L=226339]compression or contraction of the throat or of the vocal chords (in pronunciation) , obtuse articulation (
[L=226340]an obstacle , impediment
sa-skāra [p= 1120,2] [L=227017]
(ifc. f(ā).) putting together , forming well , making perfect , accomplishment , embellishment adornment , purification , cleansing , making ready , preparation , dressing (of food) , refining (of metals) , polishing (of gems) , rearing (of animals or plants) Gr2S3rS. MBh. Ka1v. , &c


R. Ragh.

Su1ryas. ), correct formation or use of a word Nir. Sarvad.

esp. of pronunciation or expression) MBh. R. &c

Mn. MBh. &c
1120,3] [L=227023]
Mn. ii , 27 , viz. 1. garbhā*dhāna , 2. pu-savana , 3. sīmanto*nnayana , 4. jāta-karman , 5. nāmakarman , 6. nikramaa , 7. anna-prā*śana , 8. ā-karman , 9. upanayana , 10. keśā*nta , 11. samāvartana , 12. vivāha , qq. vv. ; accord. to Gaut. viii , 8 &c there are 40 saskāras) Gr2S. Mn. MBh. &c ( IW. 188 ; 192 &c RTL. 353)

i.e. cremation) R.


vaiśeikas , including bhāvanā , " the faculty of reproductive imagination ") Kan2. Sarvad. ( IW. 69)

pl. , with Buddhists) a mental conformation or creation of the mind (such as that of the external world , regarded by it as real , though actually non-existent , and forming the second link in the twelvefold chain of causation or the fourth of the 5 skandhas) Dharmas. 22 ; 42

(H2) m.
[L=227018]cleansing the body , toilet , attire
[L=227019]forming the mind , training , education
[L=227020]correction (also in an astronomical sense
[L=227021]correctness , purity (
[L=227022]making sacred , hallowing , consecration
[p= a sacred or sanctifying ceremony , one which purifies from the taint of sin contracted in the , womb and leading to regeneration (12 such ceremonies are enjoined on the first three or twice-born classes in
[L=227024]the ceremony performed on a dead body (
[L=227025]any purificatory ceremony
[L=227026]the faculty of memory , mental impression or recollection , impression on the mind of acts done in a former state of existence (one of the 24 qualities of the
[L=227028]a polishing stone
sa-daśá [p= 1143,1] [L=231379]
compression (of the lips) MBh.



AV. Br. Pur. Sus3r.

of those parts of the body which are used for grasping or seizing (as the thumb and forefinger together , the opposite eye-teeth , the nippers of a crab &c ) Ya1jn5. VarBr2S. Sus3r. Pan5cat. Katha1s.

partic. naraka or hell (where the flesh of the wicked is tortured with pincers) Pur.


partic. ekā*ha Vait.

&c (fixed according to the compass) L.
(H2) m.
[L=231380]too great compression of the teeth in the pronunciation of vowels
[L=231381]junction , connection
[L=231382]a pair of tongs or pincers or nippers
[L=231385]a chapter or section of a book
[L=231387]the site of a village
sa-daṣṭa [L=231392]
bitten , compressed , pressed closely together , pinched , nipped MBh. Ka1v. &c
sa-daṣṭa [L=231393]
a partic. fault in pronunciation (arising from keeping the teeth too close together) RPra1t. Pat.
(H2) mfn.
(H2B) n.
sam-uccāra [p= 1165,2] [L=235048]
utterance , pronunciation , Ka1s3i1Kh.
(H2) m.
sam-° uccāraa [L=235049]
(fr. Caus.) simultaneous utterance or pronunciation Pa1n2. 1-3 , 48.
(H3) n.
sam-° ana [p= 1173,1] [L=236152]
compression , pressing , squeezing (also as a partic. fault in pronunciation) MBh. Ka1v. &c
(H3) n.
samyak--pāha [p= 1181,2] [L=237334]
right pronunciation VPra1t.
(H3) m.
samyag--vara-prayoga [p= 1181,3] [L=237375]
" right use of sounds " , correct pronunciation S3iksh.
(H3) m.
sārya [p= 1208,1] [L=242806]
that which may be dropped or omitted (in pronunciation) Ma1n2d2S3.
sārya [p= 1210,1] [L=243220]
[p= 1208,1].
(H2) mfn.
(H1) »
su--vaktra [p= 1233,1] [L=248852]
a good mouth or face MW.

su--vaktra [L=248854]
having a handsome mouth or face (said of śiva) MBh.
su--vaktra [L=248855]
having good organs of pronunciation S3iksh.
su--vaktra [L=248856]
a kind of plant (= su-mukha) L.
su--vaktra [L=248857]
N. of one of skanda's attendants MBh.
su--vaktra [L=248858]
of a son of dantavaktra Hariv.
(H3) n.
[L=248853]good utterance or intonation
(H3B) mfn.
(H3B) mfn.
(H3B) m.
(H3B) m.
(H3B) m.
su--vara [L=248910]
» s.v.
su-vára [p= 1236,2] [L=249813]
(ā)n. of a good or beautiful colour , brilliant in hue , bright , golden , yellow RV. &c

TBr. ChUp. R.

MBh. xiii , 2607
su-vára [L=249816]
a good colour MW.
su-vára [L=249817]
a good tribe or class ib.
su-vára [L=249818]
a kind of bdellium L.
su-vára [L=249819]
the thorn-apple L.
su-vára [L=249820]
a kind of metre VarBr2S. Sch.
su-vára [L=249821]
N. of a deva-gandharva MBh.
su-vára [L=249822]
of an ascetic ib.
su-vára [L=249823]
of a minister of daśa-ratha R.
su-vára [L=249824]
of a son of antarīka , VP.
su-vára [L=249825]
of a king of kāśmīra Ra1jat.
su-vára [L=249826]
of a poet Cat.
su-vára [L=249827]
(rarely n.) a partic. weight of gold (= 1 kara , = 16 as , = 80 raktikās , = about 175 grains troy) Mn. MBh. &c
su-vára [L=249828]
a gold coin Mr2icch.
su-vára [L=249829]
a kind of bulbous plant (= suvarā*lu) L.
su-vára [L=249830]
a kind of aloe L.
su-vára [L=249831]
a kind of sacrifice L.
su-vára [L=249833]
Sida Rhomboidea or Cordifolia L.
su-vára [L=249834]
another plant (= svarakīrī) L.
su-vára [L=249835]
a bitter gourd , colocynth W.
su-vára [L=249836]
N. of one of the seven tongues of fire MW.
su-vára [L=249837]
of a daughter of ikvāku (the wife of su-hotra) MBh.
su-vára [L=249839]
gold (of which 57 synonyms are given) AV. &c
su-vára [L=249840]
money , wealth , property , riches L.
su-vára [L=249841]
a sort of yellow sandal-wood L.
su-vára [L=249842]
the flower of Mesua Roxburghii
su-vára [L=249843]
a kind of vegetable (= gaura-suvara) L.
su-vára [L=249844]
red ochre (= suvaragairika) L.
su-vára [L=249845]
the right pronunciation of sounds S3Br.
su-vára [L=249846]
N. of a tīrtha MBh.
su-vára [L=249847]
of a partic. world ib.
(H3) &c
(H1) mf
[L=249814]gold , made of gold
[L=249815]of a good tribe or caste
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) m.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
(H1B) n.
su-vára--vat 1 [p= 1236,3] [L=249957]
" containing or possessing gold " and " having a correct pronunciation of sounds " (-tā f.) Br2A1rUp. Sch.

su-vára--vat 2 [L=249961]
like gold L.
(H3) mfn.
[L=249958]beautiful , handsome
(H3) ind.
sauvarya [p= 1255,2] [L=253959]
a beautiful fresh colour Ja1takam.

(H2) n.
[L=253960]" the being gold " and " the correct pronunciation of sounds "
á-kṛṣṭa [p= 2,3] [L=358]
unploughed , untilled

á-kṛṣṭa [L=360]
unploughed land S3Br.
á-kṛṣṭa [L=361]
N. of a kind of ṛṣis MBh. Hariv.
a-kṛṣṭa [p= 1308,2] [L=300410]
(H1) mfn.
[L=359]not drawn
(H1B) n.
(H1B) m. pl.
(H2) (also) not prolonged or drawled (in pronunciation),
anta--śri [p= 1312,3] [L=308242.4]
ánta-), ind. (said of a partic. pronunciation), S3Br.
(H3) (
a-romaśa [p= 89,1] [L=15566]
id. VarBr2S.
a-romaśa [p= 1316,1] [L=313830]
absence of a partic. faulty pronunciation of the sibilants, Ma1n2d2S3. 1.
(H2) mfn.
(H2) n.
ud-ghriṣṭa [p= 1322,1] [L=323060]
n. a partic. fault in pronunciation, S3iksh.
(H2) (also)

Basic Tips for Pronouncing Sanskrit

Tongue Asana
Sanskrit has sounds that we don’t have in English, ways of moving the tongue in a kind of tongue-asana. People who have studied Sanskrit since childhood sound marvelous when they make the sounds unique to Sanskrit. People who starting studying Sanskrit as adults tend to sound artificial, forced. Even Sanskrit scholars who have studied the language for 30 or 40 years tend to tense up, because they are afraid that they will mispronounce a word and be humiliated. David White, author of Sinister Yogis, says that unless you began speaking Sanskrit or an Indic language as a child, your palate may not be shaped properly to be able to do exact pronunciation.

You can approximate the sounds, and feel your way into them. Learn to be relaxed with the Sanskrit terms, and give your body a chance to explore what it likes in the sounds and resonances.

Mark Singleton writes,

"The Vijnana Bhairava Tantra is designed to be chanted, so it helps to know where the emphasis falls on a word. Here are a few tips on pronunciation and chanting. It's not complete, but it will get you started.

All Es and all Os are long--always. So when the goddess says "nivrtto me", /ni is short, /vrt/t is short. But /o/ is long and /me /is long (about twice as long). So the words sound like this: "nivrtt-oah.... may...", with the dots representing a long note. Tap the syllables "ni vrt" on a hard surface with your nail. Then tap "o me" more slowly with the pad of your finger. That's kind of how it should sound when you chant it. Or two quavers followed by two crotchets in musical terms.

The other vowels (a, i, u) are either short or long. When one of these letters has a line over it (ā, ī, ū), it's long. Otherwise it's always short. A couple of examples: sādhu is pronounced "saadhu" (long ahh sound, short u). Rūpam is pronounced "roopam" (long u, short a). Prakīrtitā is pronounced "pra-keer-ti-taa" (short a, long i, short i, long a).

3. Within a single line, smoosh vowels at the end of words together with vowels at the beginning of the next word. Make the resulting sound long. This will help you get the rhythm right. The Vijnana Bhairava is composed in a meter called
Anushtubh or Shloka, which has 8 syllables per half line, 32 syllables in a full verse. Exactly 8 syllables--every time! If you're off your beat, check that you're smooshing where you can smoosh. Some examples:

The Goddess says: "kim vā nava ātma bhedena". 9 syllables if you sing "nava ātma". But if you smoosh nava+atma together and pronounce "navaatma" (long a), you have 8 syllables......."

A rough guide to Pronouncing Sanskrit
(from Visible Mantra)

About 80% of pronouncing Sanskrit can be covered by a few basic rules

  • Pronounce all the letters. So Bud-d-ha, c-handa.
  • C is always soft as in church.
  • Curl your tongue back when there is a dot under the letter, except for...
  • ṃ, ḥ and ṛ which you can treat as though English with no dots.
  • A dash over a vowel makes it longer, e.g. the a sound in 'but', vs the ā sound in father.
  • If an "s" has diacritics - ie ś or ṣ pronounce it 'sh'.
  • If an "n" has diacritics - ie ṅ, ñ and ṇ pronounce it 'n'.
  • Sangha rhymes with sung, not sang. (the most common vowel mispronuciation).

The Traditions Are Inconsistent on Pronunciation
“It is worth noting that those traditions which use mantra are inconsistent on the subject of pronunciation. The old traditions, and the texts themselves, speak of the absolute necessity of correctly pronouncing the syllables for the mantras to have the desired effect. The Chinese are sensitive to this issue and retain the Siddhaṃ characters in the Taisho edition of the Tripiṭaka to ensure that the original pronunciation is not lost in transliterating mantras into Chinese characters.

However in practice those not born to Indic languages may never really get the hang of the sounds and tend in incorporate 'fudges' into their pronunciation. So the Tibetans apparently struggle with svāhā and pronounce it soha; while the Japanese who have quite a restricted pallet of sounds pronounce it sowa. In fact around India there is variation in pronunciation of Sanskrit, so that a Bengali will pronounce namaskar as though it is written nomoskar (ie the vowel becomes rounded towards an /o/ sound).

There is an old story about someone who mistakenly was pronouncing their mantra incorrectly, but was making great progress with it. When a passing lama corrected their diction, the progress ceased! In one version the someone runs across the top of the lake to catch up with the lama because he has forgotten how the mantra is supposed to sound. When Donald Lopez quotes this story in Prisoners of Shangrila (p.114) he notes that it is a short story by Tolstoy called The Three Hermits. Tolstoy apparently picked this story up from a wandering story teller in 1879, and it's origins are obscure. Was the source in Tibetan, or has it been adapted by Tibetan Buddhists to explain changes in pronunciation? The story is reproduced in "The Autobiography of a Yogi" (p.309) by Paramhansa Yogananda, first published 1946. I suspect that this is the immediate source of the story in Buddhist circles.” thanks,
Visible Mantra!

The Clay Library
guide to pronouncing Sanskrit
See the whole guide here.

Pronunciation Changes As Sanskrit Migrated to China and Japan

‘Nianfo (Chinese:
念佛, pinyin: niànfó; Japanese: 念仏 nembutsu; Korean: 염불 yeombul; Vietnamese: niệm Phật), is a term commonly seen in the Pure Land school of Mahāyāna Buddhism. It derives from the Sanskrit term “buddhānusmṛti”, which means “mindfulness of the Buddha.” In the context of Pure Land practice, it generally refers to the repetition of the name of Amitābha Buddha.

Although the Sanskrit phrase used in India is not mentioned originally in the bodies of the two main Pure Land sutras, it appears in the opening of the extant Sanskrit Infinite Life Sutra as the following:[1]


The apostrophe and omission of the first “A” in “Amitābha” comes from normal Sanskrit sandhi transformation, and implies that the first “A” is implied and spoken more quickly. A more accessible rendering might be:

Namo Amitābhāya.

The phrase literally means “Homage to Infinite Light”. The Sanskrit pronunciation, according to its mapping to the International Phonetic Alphabet, is the following:

Nianfo in Various forms

As the practice of nianfo spread from India to various other regions, the original pronunciation changed to fit various native languages.
Language As written Phonetic
नमोऽमिताभाय Namo Amitābhāya
Námó Āmítuófó
Japanese Kanji:
なむ あみだ ぶつ Namu Amida Butsu

The Saturday review of politics, literature, science and art: Volume 11 - Page 247
1861 - Free Google eBook - Read
The result has been that even the Chinese were after a time unable to read — i. c, to
pronounce — these random ... This, no doubt, explains, to a great extent, the distorted appearance of many Sanskrit words when written in Chinese. ...

Recalling Chögyam Trungpa - Page 320
Fabrice Midal - 2005 - 481 pages - Google eBook - Preview
He made great effort, though it seemed natural, to
pronounce the many Sanskrit technical terms he utilized in his talks in the way these words would be said in India. However, when he chanted Sanskrit mantras encountered in Tibetan ...